Hazelnut cultivation - care and maintenance
Hazelnut trees are cared for in many ways. Which is as follows:
Pruning hazelnut branches:
In fruiting trees, the lateral branches located on the main branches are pruned every year and the weak branches are removed. If root pruning is done during planting, pruning will be less in the later stages, but when the hazelnut trees are 12 to 15 years old, it is better to prune a large number of lateral branches to stimulate the growth of strong branches. In this case, 8 to 10 branches are left in each tree to better fill the fruit and increase the yield. It is recommended to add 30 tons of manure in autumn with 600 kg per hectare of superphosphate and in spring with 400 to 500 kg of ammonium sulfate or 300 to 400 kg of calcium cyanide or 150 to 300 kg / ha of ammonium nitrate.
Control of hazelnut pests:
Pests of hazelnuts such as hazelnut mites, hazelnut weevils, wood-eating beetles, hazelnut-producing mites, hazelnut oysters, nematodes, bacterial wilt, hazelnut wilt, brown rot or gray mold anthracnose, and mosaic virus disease.
watering systems :
If hazelnuts are planted in fertile soils that have a high water holding capacity, they will need little irrigation.
It is necessary to remove the pimples around the hazelnut trunk. In order to effectively remove the pimples on the feet, it is necessary to remove the pimples 3 to 4 times a year and up to several years after planting. Weed control by chemical herbicides.
Flowering and pollination of hazelnuts:
Flowering of hazelnuts takes place 3 to 4 years after planting, but usually the fruiting starts from the 5th or 6th year. The fruiting period is 10 to 20 years. The branches that are 16 to 25 cm long have the highest fruiting capacity. All species Corylus are single-stemmed, produce unisexual flowers and are pollinated by wind. The flowering period of hazelnuts in natural conditions lasts about 3 months, which begins with the pollination of early cultivars and ends with the peak stage of flowering in late cultivars. Hazelnut is incompatible, so different cultivars must be planted together for optimal pollination. Planting 12% of pollinating trees in favorable conditions is sufficient for pollination of the main cultivar.
Hazelnut cultivation and pruning:
Pruning is usually done during the dormancy of the tree, ie from December to March. After planting rooted seedlings in the main land, the first pruning is done as follows:
- Sapling of seedlings from a height of 80-60 cm above the ground
- Remove all trunk branches below 40 cm from the soil floor
Wrapping (dressing) cut branches with garden glue
- Removal of leaves that grow during the next growing season (from 40 cm down)
Important pests and diseases of hazelnuts:
Hazelnut superficial whiteness:
It is seen as almost spherical spots in yellow and white that in the center of each spot, fungal spores become black dots at the end of the season. These diseases do not cause much damage and only cause a slight leaf fall. To fight this disease, if you see the symptoms of this fungus on the leaves, taking into account the air temperature, you can use sulfur toxins (Kuzan) with a concentration of 2 to 3 per thousand or mancozeb with a concentration of 1.5 to 2 thousand. .
This insect weakens the tree by sucking plant sap and also by secreting honey, it causes the accumulation of dust on the surface of leaves, trunks and branches of trees and disrupts the physiological activities of trees, especially photosynthesis. To combat these pests, 4% volk oil can be used as a winter spray before the inoculation stage of trees.
It is very similar to peach aphids and the most important sign of its recognition is their collective activity around the main leaves. The damage of this pest is accompanied by severe secretion of honey, which in turn attracts ants, bees and various flies and the accumulation of dust. These insects can also transmit viral diseases. Appropriate pesticides can be used to combat this pest.
Hazelnut sprout mite:
It is one of the most important pests of hazelnut. This pest, while settling on fresh buds, swells and deforms the buds when they open, by swallowing its sting, and also causes rot and drying of flower buds. To combat this pest, endosulfan, azinfus methyl, sulfur powder or diazinon can be used when the plant wakes up or when the branches are 2 to 3 leaves long.
Other pests and diseases of hazelnuts in Iran do not cause much damage, just mentioning their names is enough.
Hazelnut Pests: Balanne, Senna, hazelnut wood beetle, hazelnut leaf bee and white root worm.
Hazelnut diseases: including bacteriosis, canker, glosporium, monilia, butrytis.